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Hirata Atsutane

(1776-1843). Kokugaku (National Learning) scholar and Shinto theologian. Leader of the Restoration Shinto movement known as Kukko Shinto, which strove to revive Shinto by freeing it of debilitating Buddhist and Confucian influences. His nationalist thought strongly influenced the shishi, loyalist samurai who sought the restoration of direct imperial rule in the late 19th century. (adapted from Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1993)

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